Fertility is an expected capacity to give birth to a child. In simple words, fertility is all about the ability of a female to become pregnant. If we talk about the fertility rate, it is the number of the child born per couple, in particular, or multiple couples. Fertility is different from fecundity that means the capacity for reproduction.
The fertility rate in India (FR) is the number of live births per 1000 women who are in their pregnancy years (15 to 49 years). The more advanced method of inspecting fertility than the basic birth rate is because the fertility rate for the percentage of women between the age of 15 to 49 years. In spite of this dissimilarity in fertility rates might be because of dissimilarity in the percentage of women in the intense fertility age (25 to 34 years) in different inhabitants.
Total Fertility Rate
The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is defined as the average birth number of children that have taken birth per woman, in case all women survive till their fertility year and conceive children based on the age-specific childbearing rate for that time period and place. Population turns off when the TFR is less than those 2.1 children born per female without immigration.
After knowing the exact Fertility meaning, there are many factors that influence human fertility such as lifestyle, feelings, timing, character, sexual behavior, culture, financial, endocrinology, consanguinity and nutrition.
The standard fertility age for females in the United States is approximately 12.5 years. In the post-menarche able girl, nearly 80 percent of the cycles are anovulatory (the ovulation doesn’t take place.) In the initial year post menarche, 50 percent in the 3rd year and 10 percent in the 6th year
Menopause arrives at the time of a woman’s mid-life (Between 48 and 55). At the time of menopause, the fertility hormones or hormonal formation through ovaries is decreased, consequently, it causes a lasting termination of the prime operation of the ovaries, specifically the formation of the uterine lining(period). This is known as the closing phase of the fertility of women.
The below-mentioned effects of age and women’s fertility are traced in females trying to conceive a baby without utilizing fertility medication of IVF treatment
At age 30
75 percent of women have fertility capacity ending in a live birth within 1 year
91 percent of women have fertility capacity ending live birth within 4 years
At age 35
66 percent of women have fertility capacity ending within one year
84 percent of women have fertility capacity within four years.
At age 40
44 percent of women have fertility capacity ending in a live birth within one year
64 percent of women have fertility capacity ending in a live birth within four years.
Few studies recommend that enhanced male age is related to the reduction in sperm count, semen quantity, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. In research that managed for women age, the contrast between men under 30 years and men exceeding 50 comparative reductions in pregnancy rates between 23 percent and 38 percent. It is recommended that sperm count decrease with age. Men aged between 50 to 80 years generate sperm at a standard rate of 75 percent compared with men aged 20 to 50 years and a bigger dissimilarity is seen in how many of the seminiferous tubules present in testes produce mature sperm
In men 20 to 39 years, 90 percent of the seminiferous tubules produce mature sperm.
In men 40–69 years, 50 percent of the seminiferous tubules produce mature sperm.
In men 80 years old and above 10 percent of the seminiferous tubules produce mature sperm.
The fertility rate in India
Indian women prefer to give a single child or a maximum of two children – The total fertility rate (TFR) decreased to its lifetime low of 2.2 in 2017 post remaining steady at 2.3 for the 4 years from 2013 to 2016, based on the report of Sample Registration System (SRS) compiled by Registrar General of India (RGI) for 2017.