Causes of infertility in men and women


Infertility is becoming a growing cause for concern in India. An Infertility is a prevalent condition and a growing cause for concern in India and worldwide. An infertility diagnosis, which comes out to be positive could come as a shock for the couples trying to start a family of their own. It has been recommended that couples should visit a fertility specialist when they have failed to conceive even after a year of unprotected sexual intercourse. This duration goes down to six months for women who are above 35. According to a study, about 1 in 5 Indian couples are enduring problems relating to fertility. By knowing the causes and treatments options for infertility, couples can take appropriate steps for handling their condition wisely. Some of the reasons listed for male and female infertility are

Causes of Male Infertility

Male infertility is ordinarily more challenging to diagnose as compared to female infertility because symptoms do not appear up early. The most common causes of male infertility are


Varicoceles is one of the most common reason of male infertility today, which is reversible. In this condition, the veins in the scrotum swell that has a huge impact on the quality of the sperm. It can affect one or both testes. The majority of men suffering from this condition exhibit no symptoms, however, it may raise the internal temperature of the scrotum that results in infertility, as sperm needs an optimal temperature to develop and sustain normally. Any fluctuation in the temperature can cause irregularities. Varicoceles have been linked with low sperm count, sperm morphology and quality of the sperm.

2. Ejaculation Disorders

Despite having healthy sperms, ejaculation trouble can prevent conception. These conditions include anejaculation (the failure to ejaculate), premature ejaculation, and retrograde ejaculation where the semen enters into the bladder during orgasm rather than coming out from the penis.

3. Tubal issues

Sperm has to travel through several different tubes before being ejaculated. Any kind of Blockage in these tubes results in low sperm count. The causes for sperm blockage are deformities or a complete nonexistence of the vas deferens. It can either be a congenital defect or because of a physical injury. Other tubules which can have blockages are the epididymis, the urethra, or the ejaculatory ducts. surgeries, infections, or the presence of cysts are some of the other basic causes for abnormalities present within the tubules.


Infections that are not treated for a long time, can cause notable damage to the sperm and tubules. STDs like HIV, gonorrhoea, and inflamed testicles, also affect the production of the sperm or result scarring that blocks the passage of sperm.

5.Lifestyle factors

Unhealthy lifestyle choices can also lead to male infertility. Smoking and alcohol consumption are the general causes of male infertility that are worldwide. Intake of recreational drugs and obesity also greatly affect sperm count and quality. Furthermore, the intake of bodybuilding supplements is also one of the reasons for low fertility levels among men. Susceptibility to harmful chemicals and radiation are the environmental factors that can also affect fertility.

6. Chromosomal defects:

Genetic disorders,like Klinefelter’s syndrome, is when a male is born having two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome rather than one X and one Y influences the normal enlargement of the male reproductive organs and hence affects fertility.

Causes of Infertility in Women

Infertility in women are usually detected early as it exhibits certain symptoms that result from hormonal disorders. Apart from hormonal factors, there are also varying issues which can cause infertility in women. Some of the most common causes of infertility in women are

1. Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a very common condition where the tissue of the uterine lining starts growing on the exterior of the uterus. Heavy and painful menstruation is the first signs of endometriosis. The uterine lining developed in expectation of pregnancy sheds and is removed from the body during normal menstruation. However, during endometriosis, the uterine lining does not completely drop. Rather, it connects to other parts of the body.this condition is responsible for about 30-50 per cent of all cases of female infertility.

2. Irregular periods

When a woman faces irregular periods, then ovulation cycles can be variable. PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is one of the most basic reasons for the occurrence of irregular periods in women and ultimately the major cause of female infertility. Not only irregular periods, but PCOS is also indicated by extreme weight gain, abnormal hair growth, Stress, emotional issues, painful periods and skin diseases. Extreme weight loss or obesity can also lead to irregular periods.

3. Age

Quality of ovum is greatly affected by age of the women. After 35 years of age in women can there is a further decline in egg quality. Even when a woman is below the age of menopause stage, she will still have issues in getting pregnant. The rise in the risk of a miscarriage also rises with advancing age.

4. Fallopian tube issues

After the process of fertilization, the egg has to travel into the fallopian tube for reaching the uterus. Any issues arising with the fallopian tube thus seriously impact a woman’s chances of getting pregnant.

5.Lifestyle factors

Lifestyle choices like smoking have an as big influence on female infertility just as in the case of males. Miscarriages are more common in women having a history of smoking. Recreational drugs such as marijuana also prevent conception. Being an overweight or underweight women can also lead to issues with fertility. long-term use of birth control pills also causes trouble conceiving as these drugs interrupt the body’s normal hormone production.

Beisdes these causes of infertility,various specific causes can affect men and women. However, coming to know about your infertility does not mean you will stop dreaming about becoming a parent.

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